THREE TECHNIQUES OF YARN SPINNING
Cotton, wool, and man-made staple products are converted to yarn by a process called spinning. Upholstery fabric yarns
In wrap spinning, a bundle of parallel fibers is wrapped in a spiraling fashion with other fibers. A bundle may contain 150-200 individual fibers along its length, yet not be thicker than a paper clip. Yarns spun by other methods are similar in size. Warp spinning is suitable for making strong, dense yarns.
In ring spinning a parallel bundle of fibers is tightly twisted for cohesion and strength. No wrapper fiber is needed.
Open End Spinning
With open end spinning the yarn has individual fibers that are not arranged as uniformly as in wrap or ring spun yarns. Most of the fibers are generally parallel, but with lots of crisscrossing, while some fiber irregularly wraps around the main bundle.
THREE MAJOR METHODS OF FABRIC CONSTRUCTION
Upholstery fabrics are constructed for durability and stability on quality furniture by three processes: Weaving, Tufting and Knitting
Woven fabrics interlace yarns essentially at right angles. Both velvet and flat woven constructions are used for upholstery. In velvet woven, the plush pile is locked in by an interlocking system as shown here.
Flat woven construction techniques range from simple basket-weaves to complex jacquard structures with patterns typical of brocade and damask.
In tufted material, the pile is sewn into a backing material. Tufted fabrics can be dyed to solid shades or patterns using special technology. Striped fabrics can be tufted by using colored yarns.
Velvet fabrics knitted on a Raschel machine are similar to woven velvets except the pile tufts are locked into loops rather than a crisscrossed structure. Knitted fabrics
like these are suited for furniture that requires fitting fabric over many curves.
COLORS AND FINISHING
COLORS Color is the most important attribute to consumers in choosing an upholstered piece of furniture. The colors in
fabrics are infinite. They can be solids, multi-colored stripes, or other pattern effects such as florals and geometries. Dyeing of the material can be done at any stage of making the fiber, yarn, or fabric. The desired effect to be achieved will usually dictate the dyeing method.
For example, a multi-colored floral pattern requires the individual yarns to be pre-colored to as many different shades as there are in the desired pattern. The various colored yarns are then constructed into the floral pattern fabric.
By contrast, a solid color can be achieved by constructing the fabric first and then dyeing the fabric. Another way to achieve a solid color or multi-color effect would be to use pre-dyed fiber, produce the colored yarn, and then construct the fabric. This assures consistently uniform color. Printing is localized coloration that also achieves multi-colored effects.
Finishing follows coloration. This treatment can be mechanical, chemical, or both. The mechanical treatment is done at the textile mill, prior to shipment to the furniture manufacturer. It can be one of various surface treatments. Brushing and polishing of velours, for example, can provide extra sheen and luster.